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    Route BGP with BIRD

    BGP isn't new, but having it be this accessible is! Leveraging dynamic hosting for a cluster of servers at a particular data center offers your workloads a safe, effective, and quick failover channel. In this guide, we'll walk you through configuring Local BGP using BIRD so that you can broadcast a specific local IP address to a host of your choice.

    Getting Started

    If you haven't already requested that BGP be added to your account you'll need to get that sorted before continuing with this guide - see more info about getting started here.

    For this guide, we're deploying a Tiny But Mighty server with Ubuntu 16, and BIRD to broadcast a local IP with BGP.

    Step 1 - Choose an IP to Broadcast

    Navigate over to IPs & Networks in your BGP enabled project and click on Manage Block for the IPv4 block in the data center location that corresponds with your server deployment. Choose an available IP that will act as your broadcast IP. In this guide, we'll be using 10.99.12.138.

    manage-ips

    manage-ips-2

    Step 2 - Update Network Interface

    Update the network interfaces with a virtual loopback interface.

    
      echo 'auto lo:0
      iface lo:0 inet static
      address 10.99.12.138
      netmask 255.255.255.255' >> /etc/network/interfaces
    

    Step 3 - Bring Up the Interface

    ifup lo:0
    

    Step 4 - Installing BIRD

    BIRD is an open source implementation for routing Internet Protocol packets on Unix-like operating systems. 

    apt-get install bird
    

    Step 5 - Configure IP Forwarding, optional

    If you'll be using this server as a gateway/proxy and performing NAT to other internal devices, you need to allow IPv4 forwarding:

    For IPv4:

    sysctl net.ipv4.ip_forward=1
    

    Step 6 - Edit the BIRD Configuration File

    First, backup the original file.

    mv /etc/bird/bird.conf /etc/bird/bird.conf.original
    

    Now edit your bird.conf file to looks like the below.

    vim /etc/bird/bird.conf
    
    
    filter packetdns {
      # IPs to announce ( 10.99.12.138 in this case)
      # Doesn't have to be /32. Can be lower
      if net = 10.99.12.138/32 then accept;
    }
    
    # your (Private) bond0 IP
    router id 10.99.69.9;
    
    protocol direct {
      interface "lo"; # Restrict network interfaces BIRD works with
    }
    
    protocol kernel {
      persist; # Don't remove routes on bird shutdown
      scan time 20; # Scan kernel routing table every 20 seconds
      import all; # Default is import all
      export all; # Default is export none
    }
    
    # This pseudo-protocol watches all interface up/down events.
    protocol device {
      scan time 10; # Scan interfaces every 10 seconds
    }
    
    # Your default gateway IP below here, in this case that's 10.99.69.8
    protocol bgp {
      export filter packetdns;
      local as 65000;
      neighbor 10.99.69.8 as 65530;
    }
    

    Note: You'll probably want to automate a setup like this using user data. That way you can provision your servers and configure their network without ever having to SSH into the server! To do that, you would curl the metadata service and parse the response using something like jq. For example:

    json=$(curl https://metadata.packet.net/metadata)
    router=$(echo $json | jq -r ".network.addresses[] | select(.public == false) | .address")
    gateway=$(echo $json | jq -r ".network.addresses[] | select(.public == false) | .gateway")
    

    Note that we're specifically looking for the server's private addresses.

    Step 6a - Multi-Session Peering

    A small portion of our server fleet is deployed on network hardware leveraging a slightly different approach at BGP configuration, which requires the creation of two distinct BGP peers using the following config lines:

    multihop;
    neighbor 169.254.255.1 as 65530;
    neighbor 169.254.255.2 as 65530;
    

    These are fixed IP addresses, and do not vary from one server to the next. This configuration type is currently utilized on the following switch IDs (as identified in an instance's 'Network' view in the customer portal):

    Switch ID 94a841f3 - Dallas, TX (DFW2)
    

    We are updating the BIRD config in the portal, as well as making this config type visibile in our metadata service.

    Step 7 - Restart BIRD

    service bird restart
    

    Step 8 - Enable BGP

    Enable BGP for the server in the portal via the server detail page.

    enable-bgp

    Finishing Up

    If you log into your server via SSH you can check the status of your BIRD daemon by accessing the bird console with the birdc command. In the BIRD console execute show protocols all bgp1

    If the peering was successful you'll see this:

    
    bird> show protocols all bgp1
    name proto table state since info
    bgp1 BGP master up 18:06:06 Established
     Preference: 100
     Input filter: ACCEPT
     Output filter: packetdns
     Routes: 0 imported, 1 exported, 0 preferred
     Route change stats: received rejected filtered ignored accepted
    Import updates: 0 0 0 0 0
    Import withdraws: 0 0 --- 0 0
    Export updates: 1 0 0 --- 1
    Export withdraws: 0 --- --- --- 0
     BGP state: Established
    Neighbor address: 10.99.69.8
    Neighbor AS: 65530
    Neighbor ID: 192.80.8.235
    Neighbor caps: refresh restart-aware AS4
    Session: external AS4
    Source address: 10.99.69.9
    Hold timer: 85/90
    Keepalive timer: 26/30
    

    As you can see, the BGP state is Established and we are exporting 1 route.

    If you check the server detail page, you will also see the learned route.

    server-details

    To test, you can ping the IP address in a command line - ping 10.99.12.138. Remember, Local BGP is announcing a private IP address, so you'll have to be connected to the private network for the data center you're running Local BGP in. You can do that by SSHing into another server in that data center or by connected to Doorman, Packet's private VPN.

    Congratulations! You've just configured a BGP routing protocol.